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Department of Psychology Gartstein Temperament Lab


Below are several updated sections on recent lab publications:


Gartstein, M.A., Hancock, G.R., Potapova, N.V., Calkins, S.D., & Bell, M.A. (2020). Modeling development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry: Sex differences and links with temperament. Developmental Science, 23, e12891.

Davison, L., Warwick, H., Campbell, K., & Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Infant temperament affects toddler language development. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research6, 122-


Perone, S. & Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Relations between dynamics of parent-infant interactions and baseline EEG functional connectivity. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, e101344.

Erickson, N.L., Hancock, G.R., Oberlander, T.F., Brain, U., Grunau, R.E., & Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Prenatal SSRI antidepressant use and maternal internalizing symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum: Exploring effects on infant temperament trajectories for boys and girls. Journal of Affective Disorders258, 179–194.

Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry: Exploring contributors to the Still Face procedure response. International Journal of Behavioral Development

Gartstein, M.A. & Hancock, G.R. (2019). Temperamental growth in infancy: demographic, maternal symptom, and stress contributions to over-arching and fine-grained dimensions. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 65, 121-194.

Gartstein, M.A., Hancock, G.R., & Iverson, S.L. (2018). Positive affectivity and fear trajectories in infancy: Contributions of mother-child interaction factors. Child Development, 89, 1519-1534.

Gartstein, M.A., Prokasky, A., Bell, M.A., Calkins, S., Bridgett, D.J., Braungart-Rieker, J., Leerkes, E., Cheatham, C., Eiden, R.D., Mize, K.D., Aaron Jones, N., Mireault, G., & Seamon, E. (2017). Latent Profile and Cluster Analysis of infant temperament: Comparisons across person-centered approaches. Developmental Psychology, 53, 1811-1825.

Bornstein, M.H., Putnick, D.L., Gartstein, M.A., Hahn, C., Kwak, K., Auestad, N., & O’Connor, D.L. (2015). Infant Temperament across the First Years of Postnatal Life: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES. Child Development, 86, 844–863.

Gartstein, M.A., Bridgett, D.J., Young, B.N., Panksepp, J., & Power, T. (2013). Origins of Effortful Control: Infant and Parent Contributions. Infancy, 18(2), 149-183.

Gartstein, M.A., Potapova, N., & Hsu, A. (2014). Infant temperament: Implications for later sleep and eating/feeding. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 32, 185-198

 Putnam, S.P., Helbig, A.L, Gartstein, M.A., Rothbart, M.K., & Leerkes, E. (2014). Development and Assessment of Short and Very Short Forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire – Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 445-458.

Childhood Behavior Problems/Developmental Psychopathology

Gartstein, M.A., & Bateman, A.E. (2008). Early Manifestations of Childhood Depression: Influences of Infant Temperament and Parental Depressive Symptoms. Infant and Child Development, 17, 223-248.

Gartstein, M.A., Bridgett, D.J., Rothbart, M.K., Robertson, C., Iddins, E., Ramsay, K., & Schlect, S. (2010). A Latent Growth Examination of Fear Development in Infancy: Contributions of Maternal Depression and the Risk for Toddler Anxiety. Developmental Psychology, 46, 651-668

Gartstein, M.A., Putnam, S.P., & Rothbart, M.K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197-211.

Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, D.E., & Dishion, T.J. (2014). The Geospatial Ecology of Adolescent Problem Behavior and Alcohol Use: Proximal Effects of Peers and Parent Monitoring. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 299–315.

Cross-cultural Differences in Temperament

Kirchhoff, M.C., Desmarais, E., Putnam, S.P., & Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Similarities and Differences between western cultures: Toddler temperament and parent-child interactions in the United States (US) and Germany. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, e101366.

Gartstein, M.A., Erickson, N.L., Cooijmans, K.H.M., Hancock, G.R., Zijlmans, M.A.C., & de Weerth, C. (2020). Is prenatal maternal distress context-dependent? Comparing United States (US) and the Netherlands. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1, 710-715.

Gartstein, M.A. & Putnam, S.P. (in press). Temperament, Parents and Culture: Findings from the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC). New York, NY: Routledge.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Putnam, S.P., Kirchhoff, C. (in press). Cross-cultural differences in the development of behavior problems: Contributions of infant temperament in Russia and U.S. International Journal of Developmental Science.

Putnam, S.P. & Gartstein, M.A. (2017). Aggregate temperament scores from multiple countries: Associations with aggregate personality traits, cultural dimensions, and allelic frequency. Journal of Research in Personality, 67, 157-170.

Gartstein, M.A., Carranza, J.A., González-Salinas, C., Ato, E., Galián, M.D., Erickson, N.L. & Potapova, N. (2016). Cross-cultural comparisons of infant fear: A multi-method study in Spain and the US. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47, 1178-1193.

Gartstein, M.A., Peleg, Y., Young, B.N., & Slobodskaya, H.R. (2009). Infant temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and similarities between Russian-speaking families. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 241-256.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Putnam, S.P., Kinsht, I.A. (2009). A Cross-Cultural Study of Infant Temperament: Predicting Preschool Effortful Control in the United States of America (U.S.) and Russia. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 337-364.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Żylicz, P.O., Gosztyla, D. & Nakagawa, N. (2010). A Cross-cultural Evaluation of Temperament Development: Japan, United States of America, Poland and Russia. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 55-75.

Slobodskaya, H.R., Gartstein, M.A., Nakagawa, A., & Putnam, S.P. (2013). Early temperament in Japan, US and Russia: do cross-cultural differences decrease with age? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 438 – 460.

JETTC research was recently published in a book:
Gartstein, M.A. & Putnam, S.P. (2018). Temperament, Parents and Culture: Findings from the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC). New York, NY: Routledge.
This book based on the work of the Gartstein Temperament Lab and others was noted in a Washington Post article:

Biological Underpinnings

Perone, S. & Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Mapping cortical rhythms to infant behavioral tendencies via baseline EEG and parent-report. Developmental Psychobiology, 61, 815-823.

Gartstein, M.A. & Skinner, M.K. (2018). Prenatal influences on temperament development: The role of environmental epigenetics. Development and Psychopathology, 3aee0, 1269-1303.

Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, E., Lengua, L.J., & Thompson, S.F. (2018). Community Crime Exposure and Risk for Obesity in Preschool Children: Moderation by the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal (HPA)-Axis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 43, 353–365.

Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, E., Thompson, S.F., & Lengua, L.J. (2018). Parenting matters: Moderation of biological and community risk for obesity. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 56, 21–34.

Gartstein, M.A., Bell, M.A., & Calkins, S.D. (2014). EEG Asymmetry at 10 Months of Age: Are Temperament Trait Predictors Different for Boys and Girls? Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 1327–1340.

Gartstein, M.A., Hookenson, K.V., Brain, U., Devlin, A.M., Grunau, R.E., & Oberlander, T.F. (2016). Sculpting infant soothability: The role of prenatal SSRI antidepressant exposure and neonatal SLC6A4 methylation status. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 745-758.

LowKapalu, C. & Gartstein, M.A. (2016). Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Investigating Temperament in Early Childhood. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60, 891-900.