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Department of Psychology Gartstein Temperament Lab

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Our research team addresses social-emotional development, primarily in early childhood, with an emphasis on identifying typical trajectories of temperament development, as well as risk and protective factors relevant to the development of psychopathology. In addition, parental contributions to both temperament development and the emergence of symptoms/behavior problems are routinely examined. We have been fortunate to collaborate with a number of wonderful colleagues at WSU, in the US, and abroad, with the latter group contributing to another area of research – cross-cultural study of temperament development and developmental psychopathology.

* indicates current or former members of the lab



*Gartstein, M. A., Seamon, D. E., *Mattera, J. A., Bosquet Enlow, M., Wright, R. J., Perez-Edgar, K., Buss, K. A., LoBue, V., Bell, M. A., Goodman, S. H., Spieker, S., *Bridgett, D. J., Salisbury, A. L., Gunnar, M. R., Milner, S. B., Muzik, M., Stifter, C. A., Planalp, E. M., Mehr, S. A., Spelke, S. E., Lukowski, A. F., Groh, A. M., Lickenbrock, D. M., Santelli, R., DuRocher Schudlich, T., Anzman-Frasca, S., Thrasher, C., Diaz, A., Dayton, C., Moding, K. J., & Jordan, E. M (2022). Using machine learning to understand age and gender classification based on infant temperament. PLoS ONE, 17, e0266026.

*Underwood, J. J., & *Gartstein, M. A. (2022). Investigating the links between parent-child interactions and context-specific electroencephalography asymmetry: Neurophysiology behind a frustrating task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 218(2-3): 105375.



*Desmarais, E. E., *Brown, K, *Campbell, K., French, B., Putnam, S., Casalin, S., Linhares, B., Lecannelier, F., Wang, Z., Raikkonen, K., Heinonen, K., Tuovinen, S., Montirosso, R., Provenzi, L., Park, H., Han, S., Lee, E., Huitron, B., de Weerth, C., Beijers, R., Majdandžić, M., Benga, O., Slobodskaya, H., Kozlova, E., Gonzalez-Salinas, C., Acar, I., Ahmetoglu, E., & *Gartstein, M. A. (2021). Links between television exposure and toddler dysregulation: Does culture matter? Infant Behavior and Development, 63, e101557.

Gartstein, M.A., *Warwick, H., & *Campagna, A.X. (2021). Electroencephalogram (EEG) frontal asymmetry changes during emotion-eliciting tasks and parent-child interaction dynamics. Social Development, 30, 496–514.

*Jones, V., Wang, Z., Yuan, S., *Pham, C., Putnam, S. P., & *Gartstein, M. A. (2021). Cross-cultural differences in temperament between the United States and the People’s Republic of China: A longitudinal comparison. Asian Journal of Pediatric Research, 7(3), 31-43.



*Iverson, S.L., *Desmarais, E.E., *Neumann, A.A., & Gartstein, M.A. (2020). New brief temperament guidance program for parents of infants: A pilot evaluation. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 33, 38-48.

Kozlova, E.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., & *Gartstein, M.A. (2020). Early temperament as a predictor of child mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction18, 1493-1506.

*Neumann, A.A., *Desmarais, E.E., *Iverson, S.L., & Gartstein, M.A. (2020). Ecological contributions to maternal-infant functioning: Differences between rural and urban family contexts. Journal of Community Psychology.

*Underwood, J., *Kirchhoff, C., *Warwick, H. & Gartstein, M.A. (2020). Leveraging Python to process cross-cultural temperament interviews: A novel platform for text analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology51, 168-181.



*Gartstein, M.A., *Erickson, N.L., Cooijmans, K.H.M., Hancock, G.R., Zijlmans, M.A.C., & de Weerth, C. (2019). Is prenatal maternal distress context-dependent? Comparing United States (US) and the Netherlands. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1, 710-715.

Davison, L., *Warwick, H., *Campbell, K., & *Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Infant temperament affects toddler language development. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 6, 122-128.

*Gartstein, M.A., Hancock, G.R., *Potapova, N.V., Calkins, S.D., & Bell, M.A. (2019). Modeling development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry: Sex differences and links with temperament. Developmental Science, 23, e12891.

*Erickson, N.L., Hancock, G.R., Oberlander, T.F., Brain, U., Grunau, R.E., & *Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Prenatal SSRI antidepressant use and maternal internalizing symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum: Exploring effects on infant temperament trajectories for boys and girls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 258, 179–194.

*Gartstein, M.A. & Hancock, G.R. (2019). Temperamental growth in infancy: demographic, maternal symptom, and stress contributions to over-arching and fine-grained dimensions. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 65, 121-194.

*Kirchhoff, M.C., *Desmarais, E., Putnam, S.P., & *Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Similarities and differences between western cultures: Toddler temperament and parent-child interactions in the United States (US) and Germany. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, e101366.

Perone, S. & *Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Mapping cortical rhythms to infant behavioral tendencies via baseline EEG and parent-report. Developmental Psychobiology, 61, 815-823.

Perone, S. & *Gartstein, M.A. (2019). Relations between dynamics of parent-infant interactions and baseline EEG functional connectivity. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, e101344.



*Gartstein, M.A., Hancock, G.R., & *Iverson, S.L. (2018). Positive affectivity and fear trajectories in infancy: Contributions of mother-child interaction factors. Child Development, 89, 1519-1534.

*Gartstein, M.A. & Putnam, S.P. (2018). Temperament, Parents and Culture: Findings from the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC). New York, NY: Routledge.

This book based on the work of the Gartstein Temperament Lab and others was noted in a Washington Post article:

*Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, E., Lengua, L.J., & Thompson, S.F. (2018). Community crime exposure and risk for obesity in preschool children: Moderation by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 43, 353–365.

*Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, E., Thompson, S.F., & Lengua, L.J. (2018). Parenting matters: Moderation of biological and community risk for obesity. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 56, 21–34.

*Gartstein, M.A. & Skinner, M.K. (2018). Prenatal influences on temperament development: The role of environmental epigenetics. Development and Psychopathology, 3aee0, 1269-1303.



*Gartstein, M.A., Prokasky, A., Bell, M.A., Calkins, S., *Bridgett, D.J., Braungart-Rieker, J., Leerkes, E., Cheatham, C., Eiden, R.D., Mize, K.D., Aaron Jones, N., Mireault, G., & Seamon, E. (2017). Latent profile and cluster analysis of infant temperament: Comparisons across person-centered approaches. Developmental Psychology, 53, 1811-1825.

Putnam, S.P. & *Gartstein, M.A. (2017). Aggregate temperament scores from multiple countries: Associations with aggregate personality traits, cultural dimensions, and allelic frequency. Journal of Research in Personality, 67, 157-170.



LowKapalu, C. & *Gartstein, M.A. (2016). Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Investigating temperament in early childhood. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60 ,891-900.

*Gartstein, M.A., Hookenson, K.V., Brain, U., Devlin, A.M., Grunau, R.E., & Oberlander, T.F. (2016). Sculpting infant soothability: The role of prenatal SSRI antidepressant exposure and neonatal SLC6A4 methylation status. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 745-758.

*Erikson, N. L.,*Gartstein, M.A., & Beauchaine, T. (2016). Infant predictors of toddler effortful control: A multi-method developmentally sensitive approach. Infant and Child Development, 745-758.



Bornstein, M.H., Putnick, D.L., *Gartstein, M.A., Hahn, C., Kwak, K., Auestad, N., & O’Connor, D.L. (2015). Infant temperament across the first years of postnatal life: Stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Child Development, 86, 844–863.



*Gartstein, M.A., Bell, M.A., & Calkins, S.D. (2014). EEG asymmetry at 10 months of age: Are temperament trait predictors different for boys and girls? Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 1327–1340.

*Gartstein, M.A., *Potapova, N., & Hsu, A. (2014). Infant temperament: Implications for later sleep and eating/feeding. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 32, 185-198.

*Gartstein, M.A., Seamon, D.E., & Dishion, T.J. (2014). The geospatial ecology of adolescent problem behavior and alcohol use: Proximal effects of peers and parent monitoring. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 299–315.

Putnam, S.P., Helbig, A.L, *Gartstein, M.A., Rothbart, M.K., & Leerkes, E. (2014). Development and assessment of short and very short forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire – Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 445-458.



*Gartstein, M.A., *Bridgett, D.J., Young, B.N., Panksepp, J., & Power, T. (2013). Origins of effortful control: Infant and parent contributions. Infancy, 18(2), 149-183.

Slobodskaya, H.R., *Gartstein, M.A., Nakagawa, A., & Putnam, S.P. (2013). Early temperament in Japan, US and Russia: Do cross-cultural differences decrease with age? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 438 – 460.


2012 or Older

*Gartstein, M.A., & Bateman, A.E. (2008). Early manifestations of childhood depression: Influences of infant temperament and parental depressive symptoms. Infant and Child Development, 17, 223-248.

*Gartstein, M.A., *Bridgett, D.J., Rothbart, M.K., Robertson, C., Iddins, E., Ramsay, K., & Schlect, S. (2010). A latent growth examination of fear development in infancy: Contributions of maternal depression and the risk for toddler anxiety. Developmental Psychology, 46,651-668.

*Gartstein, M.A., Peleg, Y., Young, B.N., & Slobodskaya, H.R. (2009). Infant temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and similarities between Russian-speaking families. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 241-256.

*Gartstein, M.A., Putnam, S.P., & Rothbart, M.K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33,197-211.

*Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Putnam, S.P., Kinsht, I.A. (2009). A cross-cultural study of infant temperament: Predicting preschool effortful control in the United States of America (U.S.) and Russia. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 337-364.

*Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Żylicz, P.O., Gosztyla, D. & Nakagawa, N. (2010). A Cross-cultural evaluation of temperament development: Japan, United States of America, Poland and Russia. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 55-75.