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Tools and Resources Environmental DNA

Environmental DNA References

Dynamic eDNA reference list


An updated list of papers and published protocols is maintained on Mendeley, a free online and desktop reference manager. To access the list, follow these instructions:

  1. Create a free account at
  2. Once you’ve logged in, go to the Groups tab on the top of the page and search for “eDNA”.
  3. Select the “Environmental DNA” group.
  4. The group is currently invite-only. To be invited to the group, you can either send a message through Mendeley to the group administrator (Katherine Strickler) or email the administrator directly ( to request an invitation to the group.
  5. Once you’re a member of the group, use the Library tab to view the shared references in the group.
  6. Click on any paper in the list to see its citation information, abstract, and link to the journal’s website.

Once you’re a member of the group, you can also access the list from the Mendeley desktop program. Mendeley Desktop is also free and links directly to your Mendeley web account.

The list is not currently searchable on the Mendeley website, but in Mendeley Desktop you can search search by author, date, keywords, tags, etc.

Mendeley Desktop includes plugins for Microsoft Word or OpenOffice, so you can easily create citations and bibliographies as you write your own papers.




Relevant publications

This list is updated periodically. Citation information is more easily accessed via the Mendeley Environmental DNA group.

List updated January 2018

Adamson, E. A. S., and D. A. Hurwood. 2015. Molecular ecology and stock identification. Pages 811–829Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.

Adrian-Kalchhauser, I., and P. Burkhardt-Holm. 2016. An eDNA assay to monitor a globally invasive fish species from flowing freshwater. PLoS ONE 11:e0147558.

Agersnap, S., W. B. Larsen, S. W. Knudsen, D. Strand, P. F. Thomsen, M. Hesselsøe, P. B. Mortensen, T. Vrålstad, and P. R. Møller. 2017. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples. PLoS ONE 12:e0179261.

Aizu, M., S. Seino, T. Sado, and M. Miya. (n.d.). Environmental DNA metabarcoding with MiFish primer reveals marine fish fauna of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki for establishing a marine protected area.

Alison A. Coulter*, D. K., J. J. Amberg‡, E. J. B. A. Reuben, and R. Goforth. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 58:1029–1037.

Amberg, J. J., S. Grace McCalla, E. Monroe, R. Lance, K. Baerwaldt, and M. P. Gaikowski. 2015. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:367–373.

Andruszkiewicz, E. A., L. M. Sassoubre, A. B. Boehm, D. Lodge, G. Lamberti, E. Willerslev, and A. Mahon. 2017. Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight. PLoS ONE 12:e0185043.

Andruszkiewicz, E. A., H. A. Starks, F. P. Chavez, L. M. Sassoubre, B. A. Block, and A. B. Boehm. 2017. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding. PLoS ONE 12:e0176343.

Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, L., A. Cordonier, F. Straub, J. Iseli, P. Esling, and J. Pawlowski. 2017. Taxonomy-free molecular diatom index for high-throughput eDNA biomonitoring. Molecular Ecology Resources.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, Y. J. Borrell, A. Samuiloviene, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2017. Novel tools for early detection of a global aquatic invasive, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 27:165–176.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, J. L. Martinez, A. Samuiloviene, Y. Borrell, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2015. Environmental DNA evidence of transfer of North Sea molluscs across tropical waters through ballast water. Journal of Molluscan Studies 81:495–501.

Ardura, A., A. Zaiko, J. L. Martinez, A. Samulioviene, A. Semenova, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2015. eDNA and specific primers for early detection of invasive species – A case study on the bivalve Rangia cuneata, currently spreading in Europe. Marine Environmental Research 112:48–55.

Atkinson, S., J. E. L. Carlsson, B. Ball, D. Egan, M. Kelly-Quinn, K. Whelan, and J. Carlsson. 2017. A quantitative PCR based environmental DNA assay for detecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). bioRxiv.

Balasingham, K. 2016. Environmental dna detection as an effective tool for delimiting spatial distribution of rare and invasive species, and assessing community in flowing, freshwater ecosystems. Electronic Theses and Dissertations.

Balasingham, K. D., R. P. Walter, and D. D. Heath. 2016. Residual eDNA detection sensitivity assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in a river ecosystem. Molecular Ecology Resources.

Balasingham, K. D., R. P. Walter, N. E. Mandrak, and D. D. Heath. 2017. Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries. Molecular Ecology.

Balasingham, K. D., R. P. Walter, N. E. Mandrak, and D. D. Heath. 2017. Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries. Molecular Ecology.

Baldigo, B. P., L. A. Sporn, S. D. George, and J. A. Ball. 2017. Efficacy of Environmental DNA to Detect and Quantify Brook Trout Populations in Headwater Streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 146:99–111.

Ballard, W. G. 2016. Fish biodiversity assessment of Abrams Creek, Tennessee. uga.

Banks, J. C., N. J. Demetras, I. D. Hogg, M. A. Knox, and D. W. West. 2016. Monitoring brown trout (Salmo trutta) eradication in a wildlife sanctuary using environmental DNA 41:1–13.

Barnes, M. A., and C. R. Turner. 2015. The ecology of environmental DNA and implications for conservation genetics. Conservation Genetics 17:1–17.

Barnes, M. A., C. R. Turner, C. L. Jerde, M. A. Renshaw, W. L. Chadderton, and D. M. Lodge. 2014. Environmental Conditions Influence eDNA Persistence in Aquatic Systems. Environmental Science & Technology 48:1819–1827.

Bastos Gomes, G., K. S. Hutson, J. A. Domingos, C. Chung, S. Hayward, T. L. Miller, and D. R. Jerry. 2017. Use of environmental DNA (eDNA) and water quality data to predict protozoan parasites outbreaks in fish farms. Aquaculture 479:467–473.

Bellemain, E., P. Harmony, G. Thomas, G. Francois, A. Valentini, M. Claude, and T. Dejean. 2016. Trails of river monsters: Detecting critically endangered Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas using environmental DNA. Global Ecology and Conservation 7:148–156.

Bergman, P. P. S., G. Schumer, S. Blankenship, and E. Campbell. 2016. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis. PLoS ONE 11:e0153500.

Biggs, J., N. Ewald, A. Valentini, C. Gaboriaud, T. Dejean, R. A. Griffiths, J. Foster, J. W. Wilkinson, A. Arnell, P. Brotherton, P. Williams, and F. Dunn. 2015. Using eDNA to develop a national citizen science-based monitoring programme for the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus). Biological Conservation 183:19–28.

Bista, I., G. R. Carvalho, K. Walsh, M. Seymour, M. Hajibabaei, D. Lallias, M. Christmas, S. Creer. 2017. Annual time-series analysis of aqueous eDNA reveals ecologically relevant dynamics of lake ecosystem biodiversity. Nature Communications 8:14087.

Blackman, R. C., D. Constable, C. Hahn, A. M. Sheard, J. Durkota, B. Hänfling, L. L. Handley, and M. Grabowski. 2017. Detection of a new non-native freshwater species by DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples—first record of Gammarus fossarum in the UK. Aquatic Invasions 12.

Bohmann, K., A. Evans, M. T. P. Gilbert, G. R. Carvalho, S. Creer, M. Knapp, D. W. Yu, and M. de Bruyn. 2014. Environmental DNA for wildlife biology and biodiversity monitoring. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29:358–367.

Boothroyd, M. M., N. E. Mandrak, M. Fox, and C. C. Wilson. 2015. Environmental DNA detection and habitat occupancy of threatened spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). GENOME 58:198.

Borrell, Y. J., L. Miralles, H. Do Huu, K. Mohammed-Geba, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2017. DNA in a bottle—Rapid metabarcoding survey for early alerts of invasive species in ports. PLoS ONE 12:e0183347.

Borrell, Y. J., L. Miralles, A. Mártinez-Marqués, A. Semeraro, A. Arias, C. E. Carleos, and E. García-Vázquez. 2017. Metabarcoding and post-sampling strategies to discover non-indigenous species: A case study in the estuaries of the central south Bay of Biscay. Journal for Nature Conservation.

Brandl, S., G. Schumer, B. M. Schreier, J. L. Conrad, B. May, and M. R. Baerwald. 2015. Ten real-time PCR assays for detection of fish predation at the community level in the San Francisco Estuary–Delta. Molecular Ecology Resources 15:278–284.

Brown, E. A., F. J. J. Chain, A. Zhan, H. J. MacIsaac, and M. E. Cristescu. 2016. Early detection of aquatic invaders using metabarcoding reveals a high number of non-indigenous species in Canadian ports. Diversity and Distributions.

Brozio, S., C. Manson, E. Gourevitch, T. J. Burns, M. S. Greener, J. R. Downie, and P. A. Hoskisson. 2017. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata. PLoS ONE 12:e0170619.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, and R. A. Griffiths. 2017. Is the detection of aquatic environmental DNA influenced by substrate type? PLoS ONE 12:e0183371.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, N. B. Zakaria, and R. A. Griffiths. 2017. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA in relation to population size and environmental factors. Scientific Reports 7:46294.

Buxton, A. S., J. J. Groombridge, N. B. Zakaria, R. A. Griffiths, K. C. Gough, J. Foster, J. Wilkinson, A. Arnett, P. Williams, and F. Dunn. 2017. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA in relation to population size and environmental factors. Scientific Reports 7:46294.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, C. M. Hardy, P. McGuffie, M. Lintermans, and D. M. Gleeson. 2016. An environmental DNA (eDNA) based method for monitoring spawning activity: a case study using the endangered Macquarie perch ( Macquaria australasica ). Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Bylemans, J., E. M. Furlan, L. Pearce, T. Daly, and D. M. Gleeson. 2016. Improving the containment of a freshwater invader using environmental DNA (eDNA) based monitoring. Biological Invasions:1–9.

Cai, W., Z. Ma, C. Yang, L. Wang, W. Wang, G. Zhao, Y. Geng, and D. W. Yu. 2017. Using eDNA to detect the distribution and density of invasive crayfish in the Honghe-Hani rice terrace World Heritage site. PLoS ONE 12:e0177724.

Cannon, M. V, J. Hester, A. Shalkhauser, E. R. Chan, K. Logue, S. T. Small, and D. Serre. 2016. In silico assessment of primers for eDNA studies using PrimerTree and application to characterize the biodiversity surrounding the Cuyahoga River. Scientific reports 6:22908.

Carim, K. J., K. R. Christianson, K. M. McKelvey, W. M. Pate, D. B. Silver, B. M. Johnson, B. T. Galloway, M. K. Young, M. K. Schwartz. 2016. Environmental DNA Marker Development with Sparse Biological Information: A Case Study on Opossum Shrimp (Mysis diluviana). PLoS ONE 11:e0161664.

Carim, K. J., J. C. S. Dysthe, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2016. An environmental DNA assay for detecting Arctic grayling in the upper Missouri River basin, North America. Conservation Genetics Resources 8:197–199.

Carim, K. J., J. C. Dysthe, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2017. A Noninvasive Tool to Assess the Distribution of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River Basin. PLoS ONE 12:e0169334.

Carim, K. J., T. M. Wilcox, M. Anderson, D. J. Lawrence, M. K. Young, K. S. McKelvey, and M. K. Schwartz. 2016. An environmental DNA marker for detecting nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta). Conservation Genetics Resources 8:259–261.

Carim, K., T. Padgett-Stewart, T. Wilcox, M. Young, K. McKelvey, and M. Schwartz. 2015. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams (v. 2.3). U.S.D.A. Forest Service, National Genomics Center for Wildlife and Fish Conservation V2.3:1–11.

Carraro, L., E. Bertuzzo, L. Mari, I. Es Fontes, H. Hartikainen, N. Strepparava, H. Schmidt-Posthaus, T. Wahli, J. Jokela, M. Gatto, A. Rinaldo, J. Bartholomew, and R. A. Norman. 2017. Integrated field, laboratory, and theoretical study of PKD spread in a Swiss prealpine river. PNAS 114:11992-11997.

Chain, F. J. J., E. A. Brown, H. J. MacIsaac, and M. E. Cristescu. 2016. Metabarcoding reveals strong spatial structure and temporal turnover of zooplankton communities among marine and freshwater ports. Diversity and Distributions 22:493–504.

Cho, A., T. Morris, C. Wilson, J. Freeland, and A. Naaum. 2016. Development of species-specific primers with potential for amplifying eDNA from imperilled freshwater unionid mussels. Genome 59:1141–1149.

Civade, R., T. Dejean, A. Valentini, and N. Roset. 2016. Spatial representativeness of environmental DNA metabarcoding signal for fish biodiversity assessment in a natural freshwater system. PLoS ONE 11:1–19.

Clusa, L., A. Ardura, S. Fernández, A. A. Roca, and E. García-Vázquez. 2017. An extremely sensitive nested PCR-RFLP mitochondrial marker for detection and identification of salmonids in eDNA from water samples. PeerJ 5:e3045.

Clusa, L., A. Ardura, F. Gower, L. Miralles, V. Tsartsianidou, A. Zaiko, and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2016. An Easy Phylogenetically Informative Method to Trace the Globally Invasive Potamopyrgus Mud Snail from River’s eDNA. PLoS ONE 11:e0162899.

Clusa, L., L. Miralles, A. Basanta, C. Escot, and E. García-Vázquez. 2017. eDNA for detection of five highly invasive molluscs. A case study in urban rivers from the Iberian Peninsula. PLoS ONE 12:e0188126.

Collins, R. A., K. F. Armstrong, A. J. Holyoake, and S. Keeling. 2013. Something in the water: Biosecurity monitoring of ornamental fish imports using environmental DNA. Biological Invasions 15:1209–1215.

Comtet, T., A. Sandionigi, F. Viard, and M. Casiraghi. 2015. DNA (meta)barcoding of biological invasions: a powerful tool to elucidate invasion processes and help managing aliens. Biological Invasions 17:905–922.

Corlett, R. T. 2017. A bigger toolbox: biotechnology in biodiversity conservation. Trends in Biotechnology 35:55–65.

Cowart, D. A., K. R. Murphy, and C.-H. C. Cheng. 2017. Metagenomic sequencing of environmental DNA reveals marine faunal assemblages from the West Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Genomics.

Cowart, D. A., M. A. Renshaw, C. A. Gantz, J. Umek, S. Chandra, S. P. Egan, D. M. Lodge, and E. R. Larson. 2018. Development and field validation of an environmental DNA (eDNA) assay for invasive clams of the genus Corbicula. Management of Biological Invasions 9.

Creer, S., K. Deiner, S. Frey, D. Porazinska, P. Taberlet, W. K. Thomas, C. Potter, and H. M. Bik. 2016. The ecologist’s field guide to sequence-based identification of biodiversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Darling, J. a., and M. J. Blum. 2007. DNA-based methods for monitoring invasive species: a review and prospectus. Biological Invasions 9:751–765.

Darling, J. a., and A. R. Mahon. 2011. From molecules to management: Adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments. Environmental Research 111:978–988.

Davison, P. I., G. H. Copp, V. Créach, L. Vilizzi, and J. R. Britton. 2017. Application of environmental DNA analysis to inform invasive fish eradication operations. The Science of Nature 104:35.

Davison, P. I., V. Créach, W.-J. Liang, D. Andreou, J. R. Britton, and G. H. Copp. 2016. Laboratory and field validation of a simple method for detecting four species of non-native freshwater fish using eDNA. Journal of Fish Biology 89:1782–1793.

Davy, C. M., A. G. Kidd, and C. C. Wilson. 2015. Development and Validation of Environmental DNA (eDNA) Markers for Detection of Freshwater Turtles. PLoS ONE 10:e0130965.

Deiner, K., and F. Altermatt. 2014. Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river. PLoS ONE 9:e88786.

Deiner, K., H. M. Bik, E. Mächler, M. Seymour, A. Lacoursière-Roussel, F. Altermatt, S. Creer, I. Bista, D. M. Lodge, N. de Vere, M. E. Pfrender, and L. Bernatchez. 2017. Environmental DNA metabarcoding: transforming how we survey animal and plant communities. Molecular Ecology.

Deiner, K., R. A. Knapp, D. M. Boiano, and B. May. 2013. Increased accuracy of species lists developed for alpine lakes using morphology and cytochrome oxidase I for identification of specimens. Molecular Ecology Resources 13:820–831.

Deiner, K., M. A. Renshaw, Y. Li, B. P. Olds, D. M. Lodge, and M. E. Pfrender. 2017. Long-range PCR allows sequencing of mitochondrial genomes from environmental DNA. Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Deiner, K., J.-C. Walser, E. Maechler, F. Altermatt, E. Mächler, and F. Altermatt. 2015. Choice of capture and extraction methods affect detection of freshwater biodiversity from environmental DNA. Biological Conservation 183:53–63.

Dejean, T., A. Valentini, A. Duparc, S. Pellier-Cuit, F. Pompanon, P. Taberlet, and C. Miaud. 2011. Persistence of environmental DNA in freshwater ecosystems. PLoS ONE 6:8–11.

Dejean, T., A. Valentini, C. Miquel, P. Taberlet, E. Bellemain, and C. Miaud. 2012. Improved detection of an alien invasive species through environmental DNA barcoding: The example of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:953–959.

de Souza, L. S., J. C. Godwin, M. A. Renshaw, E. Larson. 2016. Environmental DNA (eDNA) Detection Probability Is Influenced by Seasonal Activity of Organisms. PLoS ONE 11:e0165273.

De Ventura, L., K. Kopp, K. Seppälä, and J. Jokela. 2017. Tracing the quagga mussel invasion along the Rhine river system using eDNA markers: early detection and surveillance of invasive zebra and quagga mussels. Management of Biological Invasions 8:101–112.

Djurhuus, A., J. Port, C. J. Closek, K. M. Yamahara, O. Romero-Maraccini, K. R. Walz, D. B. Goldsmith, R. Michisaki, M. Breitbart, A. B. Boehm, and F. P. Chavez. 2017. Evaluation of Filtration and DNA Extraction Methods for Environmental DNA Biodiversity Assessments across Multiple Trophic Levels. Frontiers in Marine Science 4:314.

Doi, H., Y. Akamatsu, Y. Watanabe, M. Goto, R. Inui, I. Katano, M. Nagano, T. Takahara, and T. Minamoto. 2017. Water sampling for environmental DNA surveys by using an unmanned aerial vehicle. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods.

Doi, H., R. Inui, Y. Akamatsu, K. Kanno, H. Yamanaka, T. Takahara, and T. Minamoto. 2017. Environmental DNA analysis for estimating the abundance and biomass of stream fish. Freshwater Biology 62:30–39.

Doi, H., I. Katano, Y. Sakata, R. Souma, T. Kosuge, M. Nagano, K. Ikeda, K. Yano, and K. Tojo. 2017. Detection of an endangered aquatic heteropteran using environmental DNA in a wetland ecosystem. Royal Society Open Science 4.

Doi, H., T. Takahara, T. Minamoto, S. Matsuhashi, K. Uchii, and H. Yamanaka. 2015. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) outperforms real-time PCR in the detection of environmental DNA from an invasive fish species. Environmental science & technology 49:5601–8.

Doi, H., K. Uchii, S. Matsuhashi, T. Takahara, H. Yamanaka, and T. Minamoto. 2017. Isopropanol precipitation method for collecting fish environmental DNA. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods.

Dougherty, M. M., E. R. Larson, M. A. Renshaw, C. A. Gantz, S. P. Egan, D. M. Erickson, and D. M. Lodge. 2016. Environmental DNA (eDNA) detects the invasive rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus at low abundances. Journal of Applied Ecology 53:722–732.

Douville, M., F. Gagné, C. Blaise, and C. André. 2007. Occurrence and persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and transgenic Bt corn cry1Ab gene from an aquatic environment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 66:195–203.

Dunker, K. J., A. J. Sepulveda, R. L. Massengill, J. B. Olsen, O. L. Russ, J. K. Wenburg, and A. Antonovich. 2017. Correction: Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study. PLoS ONE 12:e0173837.

Dunker, K. J., A. J. Sepulveda, R. L. Massengill, J. B. Olsen, O. L. Russ, J. K. Wenburg, A. Antonovich. 2016. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study. PLoS ONE 11:e0162277.

Dunn, N., V. Priestley, A. Herraiz, R. Arnold, and V. Savolainen. 2017. Behavior and season affect crayfish detection and density inference using environmental DNA. Ecology and Evolution.

Dysthe, J. C., K. J. Carim, M. Ruggles, K. S. McKelvey, M. K. Young, and M. K. Schwartz. 2017. Environmental DNA assays for the sister taxa sauger (Sander canadensis) and walleye (Sander vitreus). PLoS ONE 12:e0176459.

Egan, S. P., E. Grey, B. Olds, J. L. Feder, S. T. Ruggiero, C. E. Tanner, and D. M. Lodge. 2015. Rapid Molecular Detection of Invasive Species in Ballast and Harbor Water by Integrating Environmental DNA and Light Transmission Spectroscopy. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:4113–4121.

Eichmiller, J. J., P. G. Bajer, and P. W. Sorensen. 2014. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake. PLoS ONE 9:e112611.

Eichmiller, J. J., S. E. Best, and P. W. Sorensen. 2016. Effects of temperature and trophic state on degradation of environmental DNA in lake water. Environmental Science and Technology 50:1859–1867.

Eichmiller, J. J., L. M. Miller, and P. W. Sorensen. 2016. Optimizing techniques to capture and extract environmental DNA for detection and quantification of fish. Molecular Ecology Resources 16:56–68.

Erickson, R. A., C. M. Merkes, C. A. Jackson, R. R. Goforth, and J. J. Amberg. 2017. Seasonal trends in eDNA detection and occupancy of bigheaded carps. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43:762–770.

Erickson, R. A., C. B. Rees, A. A. Coulter, C. M. Merkes, S. G. McCalla, K. F. Touzinsky, L. Walleser, R. R. Goforth, and J. J. Amberg. 2016. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA. Molecular ecology resources 16:957–65.

Evans, N. T., and G. A. Lamberti. 2017. Freshwater fisheries assessment using environmental DNA: A primer on the method, its potential, and shortcomings as a conservation tool. Fisheries Research.

Evans, N. T., Y. Li, M. A. Renshaw, B. P. Olds, K. Deiner, C. R. Turner, C. L. Jerde, D. M. Lodge, G. A. Lamberti, and M. E. Pfrender. 2017. Fish community assessment with eDNA metabarcoding: effects of sampling design and bioinformatic filtering. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences:cjfas-2016-0306.

Evans, N. T., B. P. Olds, M. A. Renshaw, C. R. Turner, Y. Li, C. L. Jerde, A. R. Mahon, M. E. Pfrender, G. A. Lamberti, and D. M. Lodge. 2015. Quantification of mesocosm fish and amphibian species diversity via environmental DNA metabarcoding. Molecular Ecology Resources 16:29–41.

Evans, N. T., P. D. Shirey, J. G. Wieringa, A. R. Mahon, and G. A. Lamberti. 2017. Comparative Cost and Effort of Fish Distribution Detection via Environmental DNA Analysis and Electrofishing. Fisheries 42:90–99.

Everett, M. V., and L. K. Park. 2017. Exploring deep-water coral communities using environmental DNA. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography.

Farrington, H. L., C. E. Edwards, X. Guan, M. R. Carr, K. Baerwaldt, and R. F. Lance. 2015. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Development of Genetic Markers for the Detection of DNA of Invasive Bighead and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in Environmental Water Samples from the United States. PLoS ONE 10:e0117803.

Ficetola, G. F., C. Miaud, F. Pompanon, and P. Taberlet. 2008. Species detection using environmental DNA from water samples. Biology Letters 4:423–425.

Ficetola, G. F., J. Pansu, A. Bonin, E. Coissac, C. Giguet-Covex, M. De Barba, L. Gielly, C. M. Lopes, F. Boyer, F. Pompanon, G. Rayé, and P. Taberlet. 2014. Replication levels, false presences and the estimation of the presence/absence from eDNA metabarcoding data. Molecular Ecology Resources 15:543–556.

Ficetola, G. F., P. Taberlet, and E. Coissac. 2016. How to limit false positives in environmental DNA and metabarcoding? Molecular Ecology Resources 16:604–607.

Foote, A. D., P. F. Thomsen, S. Sveegaard, M. Wahlberg, J. Kielgast, L. a. Kyhn, A. B. Salling, A. Galatius, L. Orlando, and M. T. P. Gilbert. 2012. Investigating the Potential Use of Environmental DNA (eDNA) for Genetic Monitoring of Marine Mammals. PLoS ONE 7:2–7.

Foppen, J. W., C. Orup, R. Adell, V. Poulalion, and S. Uhlenbrook. 2011. Using multiple artificial DNA tracers in hydrology. Hydrological Processes 25:3101–3106.

Forsström, T., and A. Vasemägi. 2016. Can environmental DNA (eDNA) be used for detection and monitoring of introduced crab species in the Baltic Sea? Marine Pollution Bulletin 109:350–355.

Freeland, J. 2016. The importance of molecular markers and primer design when characterizing biodiversity from environmental DNA (eDNA). Genome.

Fujiwara, A., S. Matsuhashi, H. Doi, S. Yamamoto, and T. Minamoto. 2016. Use of environmental DNA to survey the distribution of an invasive submerged plant in ponds. Freshwater Science 35:748–754.

Fukumoto, S., A. Ushimaru, and T. Minamoto. 2015. A basin-scale application of environmental DNA assessment for rare endemic species and closely related exotic species in rivers: a case study of giant salamanders in Japan. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:358–365.

Furlan, E. M., and D. Gleeson. 2016. Improving reliability in environmental DNA detection surveys through enhanced quality control. Marine and Freshwater Research.

Furlan, E. M., and D. Gleeson. 2016. Environmental DNA detection of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis. Conservation Genetics Resources 8:115–118.

Furlan, E. M., D. Gleeson, C. M. Hardy, and R. P. Duncan. 2016. A framework for estimating the sensitivity of eDNA surveys. Molecular Ecology Resources 16:641–654.

Gargan, L. M., T. Morato, C. K. Pham, J. A. Finarelli, J. E. L. Carlsson, and J. Carlsson. 2017. Development of a sensitive detection method to survey pelagic biodiversity using eDNA and quantitative PCR: a case study of devil ray at seamounts. Marine Biology 164:112.

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