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Paine Research Group



Bansal S, Ladumor MK, Paine MF, Unadkat JD. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for cannabidiol in healthy adults, hepatically-impaired adults, and children. Drug Metab Dispos, 51(6):743-752, 2023. PMID: 36972999.

Bansal S, Zamarripa CA, Spindle TR, Weerts EM, Thummel KE, Vandrey R, Paine MF, Unadkat JD. Evalutation of cytochrome P450-mediated cannabioid-drug interactions in healthy adult participants. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 114(3):693-703, 2023. PMID: 37313955.

Clarke JD, Judson SM, Tian DD, Kirby TO, Tanna RS, Pentek-Matula A, Horvath M, Layton ME, White JR, Cech NB, Thummel KE, McCune JS, Shen DD, Paine MF. Co-consuming green tea with raloxifene decreases raloxifene systemic exposure in healthy adult participants. Clin Transl Sci, online ahead of print, 2023. PMID: 37639334.

Li X, Ndungu P, Taneja SB, Chapin MR, Egbert SB, Akenapalli K, Paine MF, Kane-Gill SL, Boyce RD. An evaluation of adverse drug reactions and outcomes attributed to kratom in the US Food and Drug Administration adverse event reporting system from January 2004 through September 2021. Clin Transl Sci, 16(6):1002-1011, 2023. PMID: 36861661.

Liyanage M, Blaquera CL, Piscitelli J, Penzak SR, Nolin TD, Paine MF, Ma JD. Limitations of fexofenadine imited sampling strategy using plasma concentrations and partial area under teh cocnentration-time curve to estimate transporter acitvity in healthy adults. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 61(6):262-269, 2023. PMID: 37042268.

Nguyen JT, Tian DD, Tanna RS, Arian CM, Calamia JC, Rettie AE, Thummel KE, Paine MF. An integrative approach to elucidate mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic goldenseal-midazolam interaction: application of in vitro assays and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to understand clinical observations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 387(3):252-264, 2023.

Oyanna VO, Garcia-Torres KY, Bechtold BJ, Lynch KD, Call MR, Horvath M, Manwill PK, Graf TN, Cech NB, Oberlies NH, Paine MF, Clarke JD. Goldenseal-mediated inhibition of intestinal uptake transporters decreases metformin systemic exposure in mice. Drug Metab Dispos, 51(11):1483-1489, 2023. PMID: 37562957.

Smith DJ, Bi H, Hamman J, Ma X, Mitchell C, Nyirenda K, Monera-Penduka T, Oketch-Rabah H, Paine MF, Pettit S, Pheiffer W, Van Breemen RB, Embry M. Potential pharmacokinetic interactions with concurrent use of herbal medicines and a ritonavir-boosted COVID-19 protease inhibitor in low and middle-income countries. Front Pharmacol, 14:1210579, 2023.

Taneja, SB, Callahan, TJ, Paine, MF, Kane-Gill, SL, Kilicoglu, H, Joachimiak, MP, Boyce, RD. Developing a knowledge graph for pharmacokinetic natural product-drug interactions. J Biomed Inform, 140:104341, 2023. PMID: 36933632.

Tanna RS, Cech NB, Oberlies NH, Rettie AE, Thummel KE, Paine MF. Translating kratom-drug interactions: from bedside to bench and back. Drug Metab Dispos, 51(8):923-935, 2023. PMID: 37286363.

Tanna RS, Nguyen JT, Hadi DL, Layton ME, White JR, Cech NB, Oberlies NH, Rettie AE, Thummel KE, Paine MF. Clinical assessment of the drug interaction potential of the psychotropic natural product kratom. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 113(6):1315-1325, 2023. PMID: 36924284.

Zamarripa CA, Spindle TR, Surujunarain R, Weerts EM, Bansal S, Unadkat J, Paine MF, Vandrey R. Assessment of orally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol when coadministered with cannabidiol on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy adults: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Netw Open, 6(2):e2254752, 2023. PMID: 36780161.


Bansal S, Paine MF, Unadkat JD. Comprehensive predictions of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated in vivo cannabinoid-drug interactions based on reversible and time-dependent P450 inhibition in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos, 50(4):351-360, 2022. PMID: 35115300.

Brogdon HD, McPhee MM, Paine MF, Cox EJ, Burns AG. A case of potential pharmacokinetic kratom-drug interactions resulting in toxicity and subsequent treatment of kratom use disorder with Buprenorphine/Naloxone. J Addict Med, 16(5):606-609, 2022. PMID: 35165231.

Piscitelli J, Nikanjam M, Capparelli EV, Blaquera CL, Penzak SR, Nolin TD, Paine MF, Ma JD. Fexofenadine plasma concentrations to estimate systemic exposure in healthy adults using a limited sampling strategy with a population pharmacokinetic approach. Ther Drug Monit, 45(4):539-545, 2022. PMID: 36645711.

Tanna RS, Nguyen JT, Hadi DL, Manwill PK, Flores-Bocanegra L, Layton ME, White JR, Cech NB, Oberlies NH, Rettie AE, Thummel KE, Paine MF. Clinical pharmacokinetic assessment of kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa), a botanical product with opioid-like effects, in healthy adult participants. Pharmaceutics, 14(3):620, 2022. PMID: 35335999 PMCID: PMC8950611.

Taskar KS, Yang X, Neuhoff S, Patel M, Yoshida K, Paine MF, Brouwer KLR, Chu X, Sugiyama Y, Cook J, Polli JW, Hanna I, Lai Y, Zamek-Gliszczynski M, ITC. Clinical relevance of hepatic and renal P-gp/BCRP inhibition of drugs: an international transporter consortium perspective. Cline Pharmacol Ther, 112(3):573-592, 2022. PMID: 35612761.

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Cox EJ, Rettie AE, Unadkat JD, Thummel KE, McCune JS, Paine MF. Adapting regulatory drug-drug interaction guidance to design clinical pharmacokinetic natural product-drug interaction studies: a NaPDI Center recommended approach. Clin Transl Sci, 15(2):322-329, 2021. PMID: 34699676 PMCID: PMC8841492.

Cox EJ, Tian DD, Clarke JD, Rettie AE, Unadkat JD, Thummel KE, McCune JS, Paine MF. Modeling Pharmacokinetic Natural Product-Drug Interactions for Decision-Making: A NaPDI Center Recommended Approach. Pharmacol Rev. 2021 Apr;73(2):847-859. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.120.000106. PMCID: PMC7956993.

Lynch KD, Montonye ML, Tian DD, Arman T, Oyanna VO, Bechtold BJ, Graf TN, Oberlies NH, Paine MF, Clarke JD. Hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate disposition of milk thistle flavonolignans and pharmacokinetic silymarin-drug interactions. Phytother Res. 2021 Jun;35(6):3286-3297. doi: 10.1002/ptr.7049. PMCID: PMC8217340.

Nguyen JT, Tian DD, Tanna RS, Hadi DL, Bansal S, Calamia JC, Arian CM, Shireman LM, Molnár B, Horváth M, Kellogg JJ, Layton ME, White JR, Cech NB, Boyce RD, Unadkat JD, Thummel KE, Paine MF. Assessing Transporter-Mediated Natural Product-Drug Interactions Via In vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation: Clinical Evaluation With a Probe Cocktail. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 May;109(5):1342-1352. doi: 10.1002/cpt.2107. PMCID: PMC8058163.

Tanna RS, Tian DD, Cech NB, Oberlies NH, Rettie AE, Thummel KE, Paine MF. Refined Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Kratom-Drug Interactions: Time-Dependent Inhibition Considerations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2021 Jan;376(1):64-73. doi: 10.1124/jpet.120.000270. PMCID: PMC7745086.

Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Patel M, Yang X, Lutz JD, Chu X, Brouwer KLR, Lai Y, Lee CA, Neuhoff S, Paine MF, Sugiyama Y, Taskar KS, Galetin A. Intestinal P-gp and Putative Hepatic OATP1B Induction: International Transporter Consortium Perspective on Drug Development Implications. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Jan;109(1):55-64. doi: 10.1002/cpt.1916. PMCID: PMC8020731.

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McDonald MG, Tian DD, Thummel KE, Paine MF, Rettie AE. Modulation of Major Human Liver Microsomal Cytochromes P450 by Component Alkaloids of Goldenseal: Time-Dependent Inhibition and Allosteric Effects. Drug Metab Dispos. 2020;DMD.120.091041.

Bansal S, Maharao N, Paine MF, Unadkat JD. Predicting the potential for cannabinoids to precipitate pharmacokinetic drug interactions via reversible inhibition or inactivation of major cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos. 2020;DMD-AR-2020-000073.

Gaston TE, Mendrick DL, Paine MF, Roe AL, Yeung CK. “Natural” is not synonymous with “Safe”: Toxicity of natural products alone and in combination with pharmaceutical agents. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2020;113:104642. PMCID: PMC7211136.

Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Patel M, Yang X, Lutz JD, Chu X, Brouwer KLR, Lai Y, Lee CA, Neuhoff S, Paine MF, Sugiyama Y, Taskar KS, Galetin A. Intestinal P-gp and Putative Hepatic OATP1B Induction: International Transporter Consortium Perspective on Drug Development Implications. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020;10.1002/cpt.1916.

Oketch-Rabah HA, Roe AL, Rider CV, Bonkovsky HL, Giancaspro GI, Navarro V, Paine MF, Betz JM, Marles RJ, Casper S, Gurley B, Jordan SA, He K, Kapoor MP, Rao TP, Sherker AH, Fontana RJ, Rossi S, Vuppalanchi R, Seeff LB, Stolz A, Ahmad J, Koh C, Serrano J, Low Dog T, Ko R. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) comprehensive review of the hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts. Toxicol Rep. 2020;7:386-402. PMCID: PMC7044683.

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Montonye ML, Tian DD, Arman T, Lynch KD, Hagenbuch B, Paine MF, Clarke JD. A Pharmacokinetic Natural Product-Disease-Drug Interaction: A Double Hit of Silymarin and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis on Hepatic Transporters in a Rat Model. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019;371(2):385-393. PMCID: PMC6800447.

McColl R, Asthana R, Paine MF, Piquette‐Miller M. The Age of Omics-Driven Precision Medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019;106(3):477-481.

Cox EJ, Maharo N, Patilea-Vrana G, Unadkat JD, Rettie AE, McCune JS, Paine MF. A marijuana-drug interaction primer: Precipitants, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacol Ther. 2019;201:25-38. PMCID: PMC6708768. 

Tian DD, Leonowens C, Cox EJ, Gonzalez-Perez V, Frederick KS, Scarleyy YC, Fisher MB, Paine MF. Indinavir Increases Midazolam N-Glucuronidation in Humans: Identification of an Alternate CYP3A Inhibitor Using an In Vitro to In Vivo Approach. Drug Metab Dispos. 2019;47(7):724-731. PMCID: PMC6556520.

Clarke JD, Dzierlenga A, Arman T, Toth E, Li H, Lynch KD, Tian DD, Goedken M, Paine MF, Cherrington N. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease alters microcystin-LR toxicokinetics and acute toxicity.Toxicon, 162:1-8, 2019. PMCID: PMC6447445.

Kellogg JJ, Paine MF, McCune JS, Oberlies NH, Cech NB. Selection and characterization of botanical natural products for research studies: a NaPDI center recommended approach. Nat Prod Rep. 2019;36(8):1196-1221. PMCID: PMC6658353.

Tian DD, Natesan S, White JR, Jr, Paine MF. Effects of Common CYP1A2 Genotypes and Other Key Factors on Intraindividual Variation in the Caffeine Metabolic Ratio: An Exploratory Analysis. Clin Transl Sci, 12:39-46, 2019. PMCID: PMC6342244.

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Boyce RD, Ragueneau-Majlessi I, Yu J, Tay-Sontheimer J, Kinsella C, Choue E, Brochhausen M, Judkins J, Gufford BT, Pinkleton BE, Cooney R, Paine MF, McCune JS. Developing User Personas to Aid in the Design of a User-Centered Natural Product-Drug Interaction Information Resource for Researchers. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 2018:279-87, 2018. PMCID: PMC6371317.

Waidyantha S, Ryan K, Roe AL, Jia W, Paine MF, Ferguson S, Gurley BJ, Welch K, Chow MSS, Devito M, Rider C. Follow that botanical: Challenges and recommendations for assessing absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of botanical dietary supplements. Food Chem Toxicol, 121: 194-202, 2018.

Paine MF, Roe AL. “Green Medicine”: The Past, Present, and Future of Botanicals. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 104:410-15, 2018.

Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Chu X, Cook JA, Custodio JM, Galetin A, Giacomini KM, Lee CA, Paine MF, Ray AS, Ware JA, Wittwer MB, Zhang L, International Transporter Consortium. ITC Commentary on Metformin Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Study Design That Enables an Efficacy- and Safety-Based Dose Adjustment Decision. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 104:781-84, 2018.

Paine MF, Shen DD, McCune JS. Recommended Approaches for Pharmacokinetic Natural Product-Drug Interaction Research: a NaPDI Center Commentary. Drug Metab Dispos, 46:1041-45, 2018. PMCID: PMC6003437.

Johnson EJ, González-Peréz V, Tian DD, Lin YS, Unadkat JD, Rettie AE, Shen DD, McCune JS, Paine MF. Selection of Priority Natural Products for Evaluation as Potential Precipitants of Natural Product-Drug Interactions: A NaPDI Center Recommended Approach. Drug Metab Dispos,, 46:1046-52, 2018. PMCID: PMC6003438.

Tian DD, Kellogg JJ, Okut N, Overlies NH, Cech NB, Shen DD, McCune JS, Paine MF. Identification of Intestinal UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Inhibitors in Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Using a Biochemometric Approach: Application to Raloxifene as a Test Drug via In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation. Drug Metab Dispos, 46:552-60, 2018. PMCID: PMC5890833.

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Johnson EJ, Won CS, Köck K, Paine MF. Prioritizing pharmacokinetic drug interaction precipitants in natural products: application to OATP inhibitors in grapefruit juice. Biopharm Drug Dispos 38:251-9, 2017. PMCID: PMC5397323.

Kellogg JJ, Graf TN, Paine MF, McCune JS, Kvalheim OM, Oberlies NH, Cech NB. Comparison of metabolomics approaches for evaluating the variability of complex botanical preparations: green tea (Camellia sinensis) as a case study. J Natr Prod 80:1457-66, 2017. PMCID: PMC5469520.

Gufford BT, Ainslie GR, White JR Jr, Layton ME, Padowski JM, Pollack GM, Paine MF. Comparison of a new intranasal naloxone formulation to intramuscular naloxone: results from hypothesis-generating small clinical studies. Clin Transl Sci 10:380-6, 2017. PMCID: PMC5593165.

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Roe AL, Paine MF, Gurley BJ, Brouwer KR, Jordan S, Griffiths JC. Assessing natural product-drug interactions: an end-to-end safety framework. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 76:1-6, 2016.

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Barr JT, Jones JP, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Inhibition of human aldehyde oxidase activity by diet-derived constituents: structural influence, enzyme-ligand interactions, and clinical relevance. Drug Metab Dispos 43:34-41, 2015. PMCID: PMC4279085.

Dzierlenga AL, Clarke JD, Hargraves TL, Ainslie GR, Vanderah TW, Paine MF, Cherrington NJ. Mechanistic basis of altered morphine disposition in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 352:462-70, 2015. PMCID: PMC4352592.

Thuita JK, Wolf KK, Murilla GA, Bridges AS, Boykin DW, Mutuku JN, Liu Q, Jones SK, Gem CO, Ching S, Tidwell RR, Wang MZ, Paine MF, Brun R. Chemotherapy of second stage human African trypanosomiasis: comparison between the parenteral diamidine DB829 and its oral prodrug DB868 in vervet monkeys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9:e0003409, 2015.

Lee CA, O’Connor MA, Ritchie TK, Galetin A, Cook JA, Ragueneau-Majlessi I, Ellens H, Feng B, Taub ME, Paine MF, Polli JW, Ware JA, Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ. Breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) in clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions: practical recommendations for clinical victim and perpetrator drug-drug interaction study design. Drug Metab Dispos 43:490-509, 2015.

Ferslew BF, Johnston CK, Tsakalozou E, Bridges AS, Paine MF, Jia W, Stewart PW, Barritt AS, Brouwer KLR. Altered morphine-glucuronide and bile acid disposition in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 97:419-27, 2015. PMCID: PMC4499311.

Gufford BT, Chen G, Lazarus P, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Milk thistle constituents inhibit raloxifene intestinal glucuronidation: a potential clinically relevant natural product-drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos 43:1353-9, 2015. PMCID: PMC4538855.

Gufford BT, Graf TN, Paguigan ND, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Chemoenzymatic synthesis, characterization, and scale-up of milk thistle flavonolignan glucuronides. Drug Metab Dispos 43:1734-43, 2015. PMCID: PMC4613946.

Gufford BT, Barr JT, González-Peréz V, Layton ME, White JR, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Quantitative prediction and clinical evaluation of an unexplored herb-drug interaction mechanism in healthy volunteers. CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 4:701-10, 2015. PMCID: PMC4759704.

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Brantley SJ, Argikar AA, Lin YS, Nagar S, Paine MF. Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions. Drug Metab Dispos 42:301-17, 2014. PMCID: PMC3935140.

Brantley SJ, Gufford BT, Dua R, Fediuk DJ, Graf TN, Scarlett YV, Frederick KS, Fisher MB, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction. CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 3:e107, 2014. PMCID: PMC4042458.

VanderMolen KM, Ainslie GR, Paine MF, Oberlies NH. Labeled content of two furanocoumarins in dietary supplements correlates with neither actual content nor CYP3A inhibitory activity. J Pharmaceut Biomed Anal, 98:260-5, 2014. PMCID: PMC4180667.

Gufford BT, Chen G, Lazarus P, Graf TN, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Identification of diet-derived constituents as potent inhibitors of intestinal glucuronidation. Drug Metab Dispos 42:1675-83, 2014. PMCID: PMC4164973.

Ainslie GR, Wolf KK, Li Y, Connolly EA, Scarlett YV, Hull JH, Paine MF. Assessment of a candidate marker constituent predictive of a dietary substance-drug interaction: case study with grapefruit juice and CYP3A4 drug substrates. J Pharmacol Exper Ther 351:576-84, 2014. PMCID: PMC4244582.

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Generaux CN, Ainslie GR, Bridges AS, Ismail MA, Boykin DW, Tidwell RR, Thakker DR, Paine MF. Compartmental and enzyme kinetic modeling to elucidate the biotransformation pathway of a centrally acting antitrypanosomal prodrug. Drug Metab Dispos, 41:518-28, 2013.

Sy-Cordero AA, Graf TN, Runyon SP, Wani MC, Kroll DJ, Agarwal R, Brantley SJ, Paine MF, Polyak SJ, Oberlies NH. Enhanced bioactivity of silybin B methylation products. Bioorg Med Chem 21:742-7, 2013. PMCID: PMC3630461.

Althagafy HS, Graf TN, Sy-Cordero AA, Gufford BT, Paine MF, Wagoner J, Polyak SJ, Croatt MP, Oberlies NH. Semisynthesis, cytotoxicity, antiviral activity, and drug interaction liability of 7-O-methylated analogues of flavonolignans from milk thistle Bioorg Med Chem 21:3919-26, 2013. PMCID: PMC3855444.

VanderMolen KM, Cech NB, Paine MF, Oberlies NH. Rapid quantitation of furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice using ultra performance liquid chromatography Phytochem Anal 24:654-60, 2013. PMCID: PMC3855432.

Thuita JK, Wolf KK, Murilla GA, Liu Q, Mutuku JN, Chen Y, Bridges AS, Mdachi RE, Ismail MA, Ching S, Boykin DW, Hall JE, Tidwell RR, Paine MF, Brun R, Wang MZ. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2230, 2013.

Won CS, Lan T, Vandermolen KM, Dawson PA, Oberlies NH, Widmer WW, Scarlett YV, Paine MF. A modified grapefruit juice eliminates two compound classes as major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction: an in vitro-in vivo “connect”. J Clin Pharmacol 53:982-90, 2013. PMCID: PMC4029847.

Brantley SJ, Graf TN, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. A systematic approach to evaluate herb-drug interaction mechanisms: investigation of milk thistle extracts and eight isolated constituents as CYP3A inhibitors. Drug Metab Dispos 41:1662-70, 2013. PMCID: PMC3876807.

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Yan GZ, Generaux CN, Yoon M, Goldsmith RB, Tidwell RR, Hall JE, Olson CA, Clewell HJ, Brouwer KLR, Paine MF. A semi-physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach to predict the dose-exposure relationship of an antiparasitic prodrug/active metabolite pair. Drug Metab Dispos 40:6-17, 2012. PMCID: PMC3250045.

Yang J, Atkins WM, Isoherranen N, Paine MF, Thummel KE. Evidence of CYP3A allosterism in vivo: analysis of interaction between fluconazole and midazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 91:442-9, 2012. PMCID: PMC3830930.

Thuita JK, Wang MZ, Kagira JM, Denton CL, Paine MF, Mdachi RE, Murilla GA, Ching S, Boykin DW, Tidwell RR, Hall JE, Brun R. Pharmacology of DB844, an orally active aza analogue of pafuramidine, in a monkey model of second stage human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1734, 2012.

González-Pérez V, Connolly EA, Bridges AS, Wienkers LC, Paine MF. Impact of organic solvents on cytochrome P450 probe reactions: filling the gap with (S)-warfarin and midazolam hydroxylation. Drug Metab Dispos 40:2136-42, 2012. PMCID: PMC3477202.

Harrill AH, Desmet KD, Wolf KK, Bridges AS, Eaddy JS, Kurtz CL, Hall JE, Paine MF, Tidwell RR, Watkins PB. A mouse diversity panel approach reveals the potential for clinical kidney injury due to DB289 not predicted by classical rodent models. Toxicol Sci 130:416-26, 2012. PMCID: PMC3498743.

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Kim E, Sy-Cordero A, Graf TN, Brantley SJ, Paine MF, Oberlies NH. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes. Planta Med, 77:265-70, 2011. PMCID: PMC3023844.

Yan GZ, Brouwer KLR, Pollack GM, Wang MZ, Tidwell RR, Hall JE, Paine MF. Mechanisms underlying differences in systemic exposure of structurally similar active metabolites: comparison of two preclinical hepatic models. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:503-12, 2011. PMCID: PMC3083101.

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Brantley SJ, Oberlies NH, Kroll DJ, Paine MF. Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332:1081-7, 2010. PMCID: PMC2835426.

Ngo N, Brantley SJ, Carrizosa DR, Kashuba AD, Dees EC, Kroll DJ, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. The warfarin-cranberry juice interaction revisited: a systematic in vitro-in vivo evaluation involving multiple cranberry juice products. J Exp Pharmacol 283-91, 2010. PMCID: PMC2943398.

Lee JK, Paine MF, Brouwer KL. Sulindac and its metabolites inhibit multiple transport proteins in rat and human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334:410-8, 2010. PMCID: PMC2913772.

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Ngo N, Yan Z, Graf TN, Carrizosa DR, Kashuba AD, Dees EC, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Identification of a cranberry juice product that inhibits enteric CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism in humans. Drug Metab Dispos 37:514-22, 2009. PMCID: PMC2650736.

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Paine MF, Widmer WW, Pusek SN, Beavers KL, Criss AB, Snyder J, Watkins PB. Further characterization of a furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice on drug disposition: studies with cyclosporine. Am J Clin Nutr 87:863-71, 2008.

Isoherranen N, Ludington SR, Givens RC, Lamba JK, Pusek SN, Dees EC, Blough DK, Iwanaga K, Hawke RL, Schuetz EG, Watkins PB, Thummel KE, Paine MF. The influence of CYP3A5 expression on the extent of hepatic CYP3A inhibition is substrate-dependent: an in vitro-in vivo evaluation. Drug Metab Dispos 36:146-54, 2008.

Roberts PJ, Rollins KD, Kashuba AD, Paine MF, Nelsen AC, Williams EE, Moran C, Lamba JK, Schuetz EG, Hawke RL. The influence of CYP3A5 genotype on dexamethasone induction of CYP3A activity in African Americans. Drug Metab Dispos 36:1465-9, 2008. PMCID: PMC2770345.

Wang MZ, Wu JQ, Dennison KB, Bridges AS, Hall SD, Kornbluth S, Tidwell RR, Smith PC, Voyksner RD, Paine MF, Hall JE. A gel-free MS-based quantitative proteomic approach accurately measures cytochrome P450 protein concentrations in human liver microsomes. Proteomics 8:4186-96, 2008.

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Wang MZ, Wu JQ, Bridges AS, Zeldin DC, Kornbluth S, Tidwell RR, Hall JE, Paine MF. Human enteric microsomal CYP4F enzymes O-demethylate the antiparasitic prodrug pafuramidine. Drug Metab Dispos 35:2067-75, 2007.

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Paine MF, Widmer WW, Hart HL, Pusek SN, Beavers KL, Criss AB, Brown SS, Thomas BF, Watkins PB. A “furanocoumarin-free” grapefruit juice establishes furanocoumarins as the mediators of the grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1097-105, 2006.

Paine MF, Hart HL, Ludington SS, Haining RL, Rettie AE, Zeldin DC. The human intestinal cytochrome P450 “pie”. Drug Metab Dispos 34:880-6, 2006.

Wang MZ, Saulter JY, Usuki E, Cheung YL, Hall M, Bridges AS, Loewen G, Parkinson OT, Stephens CE, Allen JL, Zeldin DC, Boykin DW, Tidwell RR, Parkinson A, Paine MF, Hall JE. CYP4F enzymes are the major enzymes in human liver microsomes that catalyze the O-demethylation of the antiparasitic prodrug DB289. Drug Metab Dispos 34:1985-94, 2006.

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Paine MF, Criss AB, Watkins PB. Two major grapefruit juice components differ in time to onset of intestinal CYP3A4 inhibition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 312:1151-60, 2005.

Paine MF, Ludington SS, Chen M-L, Stewart PW, Huang S-M, Watkins PB. Do men and women differ in proximal small intestinal CYP3A or P-glycoprotein expression?  Drug Metab Dispos 33:426-33, 2005.

Mouly SJ, Matheny C, Paine MF, Smith G, Lamba J, Lamba V, Pusek SN, Schuetz EG, Stewart PW, Watkins PB. Variation in oral clearance of saquinavir is predicted by CYP3A5*1 genotype but not by enterocyte content of cytochrome P450 3A5. Clin Pharmacol Ther 78:605-18, 2005.

Buchman AL, Paine MF, Wallin A, Ludington SS. A higher dose requirement of tacrolimus in active Chron’s disease may be related to a high intestinal P-glycoprotein content. Dig Dis Sci 50:2312-3, 2005.

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Mouly SJ, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Contributions of CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein, and serum protein binding to the intestinal first-pass extraction of saquinavir. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308:941-8, 2004.

Kakar SM, Paine MF, Stewart PW, Watkins PB. 6′,7′-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect. Clin Pharmacol Ther 75:569-79, 2004.

Paine MF, Leung LY, Watkins PB. New insights into drug absorption: studies with sirolimus. Ther Drug Monit 26:463-7, 2004.

Paine MF, Criss AB, Watkins PB. Two major grapefruit juice components differ in intestinal CYP3A4 kinetic and binding properties. Drug Metab Dispos 32:1146-53, 2004.

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Mouly S, Paine MF. P-glycoprotein increases from proximal to distal regions of human small intestine. Pharm Res 20:1595-9, 2003.

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Paine MF, Leung LY, Lim HK, Liao K, Oganesian A, Zhang M-Y, Thummel KE, Watkins PB. Identification of a novel route of extraction of sirolimus in human small intestine: roles of metabolism and secretion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:174-86, 2002.

Paine MF, Wagner DA, Hoffmaster KA, Watkins PB. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein mediate the interaction between an oral erythromycin breath test and rifampin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 72:524-35, 2002.

Wanwimolruk S, Paine MF, Pusek SN, Watkins PB. Is quinine a suitable probe to assess the hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4? Br J Clin Pharmacol 54:643-51, 2002.

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Malhotra S, Bailey DG, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison of dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins. Clin Pharmacol Ther 69:14-23, 2001.

Mouly S, Paine MF. Effect of grapefruit juice on the disposition of omeprazole (Letter to the Editor). Br J Clin Pharmacol 52:216-7, 2001.

Schmiedlin-Ren P, Thummel KE, Fisher JM, Paine MF, Watkins PB. Induction of CYP3A4 by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is human cell line specific and is unlikely to involve PXR. Drug Metab Dispos 29:1446-53, 2001.

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Paine MF, Fisher MB. Immunochemical identification of UGT isoforms in human small bowel and in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 273:1053-7, 2000.

Paine MF, Davis CL, Shen DD, Marsh CL, Raisys VA, Thummel KE. Can oral midazolam predict oral cyclosporine disposition? Eur J Pharm Sci 12:51-62, 2000.

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Hall SD, Thummel KE, Watkins PB, Lown KS, Benet LZ, Paine MF, Mayo RR, Turgeon DK, Bailey DG, Fontana RJ, Wrighton SA. Symposium article: molecular and physical mechanisms of first-pass extraction. Drug Metab Dispos 27:161-6, 1999.

Paine MF, Schmiedlin-Ren P, Watkins PB. CYP1A1 expression in human small bowel: interindividual variation and inhibition by ketoconazole. Drug Metab Dispos 27:360-4, 1999.

Fontana RJ, Lown KS, Paine MF, Fortlage L, Santella RM, Felton JS, Knize MG, Greenberg A, Watkins PB. Effects of a chargrilled meat diet on expression of CYP3A, CYP1A, and P-glycoprotein levels in healthy volunteers. Gastroenterol 117:89-98, 1999.

Madani S, Paine MF, Lewis L, Thummel KE, Shen DD. Comparison of CYP2D6 content and catalytic activity between microsomes isolated from human livers and small intestines. Pharm Res 16:1199-1205, 1999.

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Schmiedlin-Ren P, Thummel KE, Fisher JM, Paine MF, Lown KS, Watkins PB. Expression of enzymatically active CYP3A4 by Caco-2 cells grown on extracellular matrix-coated permeable supports in the presence of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Mol Pharmacol 51:741-54, 1997.

Labroo RB, Paine MF, Thummel KE, Kharasch ED. Fentanyl metabolism by human hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4: implications for interindividual variability in disposition, efficacy, and drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 25:1072-80, 1997.

Paine MF, Khaligi M, Fisher JM, Shen DD, Kunze KL, Marsh CL, Perkins JD, Thummel KE. Characterization of interintestinal and intraintestinal variations in human CYP3A-dependent metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283:1552-62, 1997.

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Thummel KE, O’Shea D, Paine MF, Shen DD, Kunze KL, Perkins JD, Wilkinson GR. Oral first-pass elimination of midazolam involves both gastrointestinal and hepatic CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 59:491-502, 1996.

Paine MF, Shen DD, Kunze KL, Perkins JD, Marsh CL, McVicar JP, Barr DM, Gillies BS, Thummel KE. First-pass metabolism of midazolam by the human intestine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60:14-24, 1996.