Biology and Conservation of At-Risk Butterflies
Whether conservation efforts succeed or fail often depends on whether specific details of the biology of at-risk species are overlooked or incorporated (Schultz & Crone 2008; Schultz, Russell & Wynn 2008). Yet many details of biology of at-risk species are still unknown. A thread in our research is understanding the biology of rare butterfly species (Schultz, Hammond & Wilson 2003; Wilson et al. 2003). Work in our lab includes focal work on mardon skipper (Beyer & Schultz 2010; Henry & Schultz 2013) and Fender’sblue (Thomas & Schultz 2016), as well as reviews of thestatus of at-risk butterflies in the Pacific Northwest Prairies. New work in the lab expands our work to western monarch and understanding the ecology of this widespread species which is currently in rapid decline across North America (Pelton et al. 2016; Schultz et al. 2017)
In addition, we use this natural history research in combination with behavioral and demographic work to develop “rules of thumb” to advance species recovery (Schultz 2015; Schultz & Crone 2015)
Beyer, L. J. and C. B. Schultz. 2010. Oviposition selection by a rare grass skipper Polites mardon in montane habitats: advancing ecological understanding to develop conservation strategies. Biological Conservation 143:862-872.
Henry, E. H. and C. B. Schultz. 2013. A first step towards successful conservation: understanding local oviposition site selection of an imperiled butterfly, Mardon skipper. Journal of Insect Conservation 17:183-194.
Pelton, E., S. Jepsen, C. B. Schultz, C. Fallon, and S. H. Black. 2016. State of the monarch butterfly overwintering sites in California. 40+vi pp. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. (Available online at www.xerces.org)
Schultz, C. B. 2015. Flying towards recovery: conservation of Fender’s blue butterfly. News of the Lepidopterists’ Society 57:210-213.
Schultz, C. B. and E. E. Crone. 2008. Using ecological theory to advance butterfly conservation. Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution 54:63-68.
Schultz, C. B. and E. E. Crone. 2015. Using ecological theory to develop recovery criteria for an endangered butterfly. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:1111-1115.
Schultz, C. B., P. C. Hammond, and M. V. Wilson. 2003. Biology of the Fender’s blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi Macy), an endangered species of western Oregon native prairies. Natural Areas Journal 23:61-71.
Schultz, C. B., E. Pelton, S. Jepsen, R. Hatfield, L. Brown, C. Fallon, and S. H. Black. In prep. Threats associated with western monarch decline. Insect Conservation and Diversity.
Schultz, C. B., L. Brown, E. Pelton, and E. E. Crone. 2017. Citizen science monitoring demonstrates dramatic declines of monarch butterflies in western North America. Biological Conservation. In press.
Schultz, C. B., C. Russell, and L. Wynn. 2008. Restoration, reintroduction and captive propagation efforts for at-risk butterflies: a review. Invited submission to Israel Journal of Ecology and Evoluation for special issue on Butterfly Conservation, 54:41-61.
Thomas, R. C. and C. B. Schultz. 2016. Resource selection in an endangered butterfly: Females select native nectar species. Journal of Wildlife Management 80:171-180.
Wilson, M. V., T. Erhart, P. C. Hammond, T. N. Kaye, K. Kuykendall, A. Liston, A. F. Robinson, C. B. Schultz, and P. M. Severns. 2003. The biology of Kincaid’s lupine (Lupinus sulphureus spp. kincaidii), a threatened species of western Oregon native prairies. Natural Areas Journal 23:72-83.