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Manoj Karkee Agricultural Automation and Robotics Lab

Patents

  • Davidson, J.R., Mo, C., Zhang, Q., Silwal, A. and Karkee, M., Washington State University, 2017. Robotic systems, methods, and end-effectors for harvesting produce. U.S. Patent Application 15/383,000.
  • De Kleine, M., Karkee, M. and Ye, Y., Washington State University, 2016. Harvesting machine for formally trained orchards. U.S. Patent 9,468,146.

Books

  1. Karkee, M. and Q. Zhang (Eds.). 2019. Fundamentals of Agricultural and Field Robotics. Springer Science+Business Media. Under Preparation.

Book Chapters

  1. Zhang, Q., Karkee, A. Tabb. 2019. The Use of Agricultural Robots in Orchard Management. In Robotics and Automation for a More Sustainable Agriculture (Editor: John Billingsley); Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing. In Press.
  2. Karkee, M., Q. Zhang, and A. Silwal. 2019. Agricultural Robots for Precision Agricultural Tasks in Tree Fruit Orchards. Book Chapter on ‘Innovation in Agricultural Robotics for Precision Agriculture. Editor: Avital Bechar’. In Press.
  3. Karkee, M., J. Gordón, B. Sallto and M. Whiting, Optimizing fruit production efficiencies via mechanization. 2019. In Achieving sustainable cultivation of temperate zone tree fruits and berries, Volume 1 – Physiology, genetics and cultivation (Editor: Dr Greg Lang). Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing.
  4. Shamshiri, R. R., A. Hameed, M. Karkee, and C. Weltzien. 2018. Robotic Harvesting of Fruiting Vegetables: A Simulation Approach in V-REP, ROS and MATLAB. In “Automation in Agriculture – Securing Food Supplies for Future Generations”, book edited by Stephan Hussmann, ISBN 978-953-51-3874-7, Print ISBN 978-953-51-3873-0.
  5. Karkee, M., A. Silwal, J.R. Davidson. 2018. Mechanical Harvest and In-field Handling of Tree Fruit Crops. Book Chapter; Chapter on ‘Automation in Tree Fruit Production, Principles and Practice. Editor: Qin Zhang’. CABI.
  6. Zhang, Q., M. Karkee and L. Khot. 2017. Mechanization and automation for apple production. Chapter on ‘Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Apples’ Editor: Kate Evans. Burleigh Dodds (28 pp). https://shop.bdspublishing.com/checkout/Store/bds/Detail/Product/3-190-9781786760326-011
  7. Karkee, M., B. Steward, and J. Kruckeberg. 2013. Automation of Pesticide Application Systems. In Agricultural Automation: Fundamentals and Practices (Q. Zhang and F. Pierce editors; ISBN: 9781439880579). CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Bhusal, S., K. Khanal, S. Goel, M. Taylor and M. Karkee. 2019. Bird Deterrence in a Vineyard using an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). Transactions of the ASABE.
  2. He, L., X. Zhang, Y. Ye, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2019. Effect of Shaking Location and Duration on Mechanical Harvesting of Fresh Market Apples. Applied Engineering in Agriculture.
  3. Hohimer, C. J., H. Wang, S. Bhusal, J. Miller, C. Mo, M. Karkee. 2019. Design and field evaluation of a robot apple harvesting system with 3D printed soft-robotic end-effector. Transactions of the ASABE.
  4. Zhang, J., L. He, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang and Z. Gao. 2018. Branch Detection for Apple Trees Trained in Fruiting Wall Architecture using Depth Features and Regions-Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN). Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 155: 386-393.
  5. Zhang, X., He, Y. Majeed, M. Karkee, M.D. Whiting, M. D. and Q. Zhang. 2018. A precision pruning strategy for improving efficiency of vibratory mechanical harvesting of apples. Transactions of the ASABE. 61(5): 1565-1576.
  6. Gongal, A., S. Amatya and M. Karkee. 2018. Apple fruit size estimation using a 3D machine vision system. Information processing in agriculture. 5(4): 498-503.
  7. Ma, S., Karkee, F. Han, Q. Sun, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Evaluation of shake-and-catch mechanism in mechanical harvesting of apples. Transactions of the ASABE, 61(4): 1257-1263.
  8. Khanal, K., S. Bhusal, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang. 2018. Raspberry Primocane Bundling and Taping Mechanisms. Transactions of the ASABE. 61(4): 1265-1274.
  9. Yamamoto, S., M. Karkee, Y. Kobayashi, N. Nakayama, S. Tsubota, L. N. Thanh, T. Konya. 2018. 3D reconstruction of apple fruits using consumer-grade RGB-depth sensor. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food; 4: 159-168.
  10. Ma, S., M. Karkee, Scharf, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Adaptability of Chopper Harvester in Harvesting Sugarcane, Energy Cane, and Banagrass. Transactions of the ASABE. 61(1): 27-35.
  11. He, L., M. Karkee, Q. Zhang. 2018. Evaluation of a localized shake-and-catch harvesting system for fresh market apples. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal19(4): 36-44.
  12. He, L., Karkee, Q. Zhang. 2018. Evaluation of a localized shake-and-catch harvesting system for fresh market apples. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal19(4), pp.36-44.
  13. Ma, S., P. Scharf, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, J. Tong, and L. Yu. A Study on the Effects of Harvester Off-track Errors on Stubble Losses. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 33(6): 771-779.
  14. Amatya, S., Karkee, M., Zhang, Q. and Whiting, M.D., 2017. Automated Detection of Branch Shaking Locations for Robotic Cherry Harvesting Using Machine Vision. Robotics6(4), p.31.
  15. He, L., H. Fu, D. Sun, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2017. Shake and Catch Harvesting for Fresh Market Apples in Trellis Trained Trees. Transactions of the ASABE. 60(2): 353-360.
  16. He, L., H. Fu, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2017. An Effect of fruit location on apple detachment with mechanical shaking. Biosystems Engineering, 157: 63-171.
  17. Silwal, A., J. R. Davidson, M. Karkee, C. Mo, Q. Zhang, and K. Lewis. 2017. Design, integration, and field evaluation of a robotic apple harvester. Journal of Field Robotics. 34(6): 1140-1159.
  18. Fu, H., L. He, S. Ma, Karkee, D. Chen, Q. Zhang, and S. Wang. 2017. “Jazz” Apple Impact Bruise Responses to Different Cushioning Materials. Transactions of the ASABE. 60(2): 327-336.
  19. Zhou, J., L. He, M. Whiting, S. Amatya, P. Larbi, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Field evaluation of a mechanical-assist cherry harvesting system. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food, 9(4): 324-331.
  20. Silwal, A., M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. A Hierarchical approach of apple identification for robotic harvesting. Transaction of the ASABE. 59(5): 1079-1086.
  21. Santiago, W. E., J. Leite, B. J. Teruel, M. Karkee, C. A. M. Azania, and R. Vitorino. 2016. Development and testing of image processing algorithm to estimate weed infestation level in corn fields. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 10(9): 12232-1237.
  22. Davidson, J., Silwal, A., Karkee, M., Mo, C., Qin, Z. 2016. Hand Picking Dynamic Analysis for Undersensed Robotic Apple Harvesting. Transactions and the ASABE, Vol. 59(4): 745-758.
  23. Li, J., M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, K. Xiao, T. Feng, 2016. Characterizing apple fruit robotic picking patterns and detaching parameters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 127:633-640.
  24. Ma, S., P. A. Scharf, Q. Zhang, M. Karkee, J. Tong, and L. Yu. 2016. Effect of Cane Stool Density and Stubble Height on Sugarcane Stubble Damage in Hawaii Fields. Transactions and the ASABE, 59(3): 813-820.
  25. Amatya, S., and M. Karkee, 2016. Integration of visible branch sections and cherry clusters for detecting cherry tree branches in dense foliage canopies. 2016. Biosystems Engineering, 119:72-81.
  26. Zhou, J., L. He, Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Analysis of shaking-induced cherry fruit motion and damage. Biosystems Engineering, 144: 105-114.
  27. Zhou, J., L. He, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Effect of Catching Surface and Tilt Angle on Reducing of Bruise Damage of Sweet Cherry due to Mechanical Impact. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 121:282-289.
  28. Amatya, S., M. Karkee, A. Gongal, Q. Zhang, M.D. Whiting. 2016. Detection of Cherry Tree Branches in Planner Architecture for Automated Sweet-Cherry Harvesting. Biosystems Engineering. 146:3-15.
  29. De Kleine, M. E., and M. Karkee. 2016. A Semi-Automated Harvesting Prototype for Shaking Fruit Tree Limbs. Transactions of the ASABE, 58(6): 1461-1470.
  30. Gongal, A., A. Silwal, S. Amatya, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, and K. Lewis. 2016. Apple Crop-load Estimation with Over-the-Row Machine Vision System. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 20: 26–35.
  31. He, L., J. Zhou, Q. Zhang, M. Karkee. 2015. Evaluation of multipass mechanical harvesting on ‘Skeena’ sweet cherries trained to Y-trellis. HortScience, 50(8): 1178-1182.
  32. Ma, S., P. A. Scharf, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2015. Performance Evaluation of a Chopper Harvester in Hawaii Sugarcane Fields. Transactions of the ASABE, 58(2): 271-279.
  33. Gongal, A., S. Amatya, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, and K. Lewis. 2015. Sensors and Systems for Fruit Detection and Localization: A Review. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 116:8-19.
  34. Larbi P., S. Amatya, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, and M. Whiting. 2015. Modification and Field Evaluation of an Experimental Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 31(3):387-397.
  35. Larbi, P., C. N Vong, M. Karkee. 2015. A Study of Operator Performance for a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester: Comparison between Manual and Remote-Controlled Operation.  Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, 21(3): 145-157.
  36. De Kleine, M.E., and M. Karkee. 2015. Evaluating a non-Newtonian Shear Thickening Surface During Fruit Impacts. The Transactions of ASABE, 58(3): 907-915.
  37. Karkee, M., and B. Adhikari. 2015. A Method for Three Dimensional Reconstruction of Apple Trees for Automated Pruning. Transactions of the ASABE, 58(3): 565-574.
  38. Sharda, A., M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, J. Brunner, I. Ewlanow, and U. Adameit. 2015. Effect of emitter type and mounting configuration on spray coverage for Solid Set Canopy Delivery Systems. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 112: 184-192.
  39. Silwal, A., A. Gongal, and M. Karkee. 2014. Apple identification in field environment with over the row machine vision system. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 16(4): 66-75.
  40. Ma, S., M. Karkee, P. A. Scharf, and Q. Zhang. 2014. Sugarcane Harvester Technology: a Critical Overview. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 30(5): 727-739.
  41. Zhou J., L. He, Q. Zhang, and M. Karkee. 2014. Effect of Excitation Position of a Handheld Shaker on Fruit Removal Efficiency and Damage in Mechanical Harvesting of Sweet Cherry Biosystems Engineering. Biosystems Engineering, 125:36-44.
  42. Karkee, M., B. Adhikari, S. Amatya, and Q. Zhang. 2014. Identification of Pruning Branches in Tall Spindle Apple Trees for Automated Pruning. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 103(2014):127-135.
  43. Larbi, P. A., and M. Karkee. 2014. Effects of Orchard Characteristics and Operator Performance on Harvesting Rate of a Mechanical Sweet Cherry Harvester. GSTF Journal on Agricultural Engineering, 1(1): 1-11.
  44. Amatya, S., M. Karkee, A. K. Alva, P. A. Larbi, and B. Adhikari. 2014. Hyperspectral Imaging for Detecting Water Stress in Potatoes. GSTF Journal on Agricultural Engineering, 1(1): 52-61.
  45. Zhou, J., L. He, Q. Zhang, X. Du, D. Chen, and M. Karkee. 2013. Evaluation of the Influence of Shaking Frequency and Duration in Mechanical Harvesting of Sweet Cherry. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 29(5): 607-612.
  46. He, L., J. Zhou, X. Du, D. Chen, Q. Zhang, and M. Karkee. 2013. Energy Efficacy Analysis of a Mechanical Shaker in Sweet Cherry Harvest. Biosystems Engineering, 116(4): 309-315.
  47. He, L., X. Du, R. Luo, M. Karkee and Q. Zhang. 2012. A Twining Robot for High Trellis String Tying in Hops Production. The Transactions of ASABE, 55(5): 1167–1673.
  48. Karkee, M., R. McNaull, S. J. Birrell and B. L. Steward. 2012. Variable Rate Biomass Collection System for Sustainable Biomass Harvesting. Transactions of the ASABE, 55(1): 107–115.
  49. Abd Aziz, S., B. L. Steward, A. Kaleita and M. Karkee. 2012. Assessing the Effects of DEM Error Uncertainty on Soil Loss Estimation in Agricultural Field. Transactions of the ASABE, 55(3): 785–798.
  50. Karkee, M. and B. L. Steward. 2011. Parameter Estimation and Validation of a Tractor and Single Axle Towed Implement Dynamic System Model. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 77(2): 135–146.
  51. Karkee, M., B. L. Steward, A. G. Kelkar and Z. T. Kemp II. 2011. Modeling and Real-time Simulation Architectures for Virtual Prototyping of Off-Road Vehicles. Virtual Reality, 15(1): 83–96.
  52. Karkee, M. and B. L. Steward. 2010. Local and Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Tractor and Single Axle Grain Cart Dynamic System Model. Biosystems Engineering, 106(4): 352-366.
  53. Karkee, M., and B. L. Steward. 2010. Study of the Open and Closed Loop Characteristics of a Tractor and a Single Axle Towed Implement System. Journal of Terramechanics, 47(6): 379-393.
  54. Abd Aziz, S., B. L. Steward, L. Tang, and M. Karkee. 2010. Using Spatial Uncertainty of Prior Measurements to Design Targeted Sampling of Elevation Data. The Transactions of the ASABE. 53(2): 349-357.
  55. Karkee, M., B. L. Steward, L. Tang, and S. Abd Aziz. 2009. Quantifying Sub-pixel Signature of Paddy Rice Field Using Neural Network. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 65 (2009): 65-76.
  56. Abd Aziz, S., B. L. Steward, L. Tang, and M. Karkee. 2009. Utilizing Repeated GPS Measurement from Field Operations for Development of Agricultural Field DEM. Transactions of the ASABE. 52(4): 1057-1067.
  57. Karkee, M., B. L. Steward, and S. Abd Aziz. 2008. Improving Quality of Digital Elevation Models through Data Fusion. Biosystems Engineering, 101(3): 293-305.

Referred Conference Proceedings

  1. Bhusal, S., Khanal, K., Karkee, M. and Zhang, Q., Cane Detection and Localization for Automated Cane Management in Red Raspberry Plant. International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 21-25 May 2018 | Brisbane
  2. Fu, H.; J. Duan, M. Karkee, L. He, D. Chen, D. Sun, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Quantifying Fruit Quality Affected by Mechanical Impact for Selected Apple Varieties. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  3. Khanal, K., S. Bhusal, M. Karkee*, and Q, Zhang. 2018. Distinguishing One Year and Two Year Old Canes of Red Raspberry Plant using Spectral Reflectance. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  4. Fu, L., Feng, Y. Majeed, X. Zhang, J. Zhang, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Kiwifruit detection in field images using Faster R-CNN with ZFNet. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  5. Majeed, Y., J. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Fu, M. Karkee, Q. Zhang, and M. Whiting. 2018. Apple Tree Trunk and Branch Segmentation for Automatic Trellis Training Using Convolutional Neural Network Based Semantic Segmentation. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  6. Zhang, X., L. Fu, Y. Majeed, L. He, M. Karkee, M. Whiting, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Field Evaluation of Data-Based Pruning Severity Levels (PSL) on Mechanical Harvesting of Apples. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  7. Wang, H., C. Hohimer, S. Bhusal, M. Karkee, C. Mo, and M. John. 2018. Simulation as a Tool in Designing and Evaluating a Robotic Apple Harvesting System. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  8. Chen, L., M. Karkee, L. He, Y. Wei, and Q. Zhang. 2018. Evaluation of a Leveling System for a Weeding Robot under Field Condition. 6th IFAC Conference on Bio-Robotics; July 13-15, 2018; Beijing, China.
  9. Shrestha, A. M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Mechanism for Bundling and Tying of Red Raspberry Primocanes. Proceedings of the 5th IFAC Conference on Sensing, Control and Automation Technologies for Agriculture; Seattle, WA; August 14-17, 2016.
  10. Ma, S., M. Karkee, H. Fu, D. Sun, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Air Suspension-based Catching Mechanism for Mechanical Harvesting of Apples. Proceedings of the 5th IFAC Conference on Sensing, Control and Automation Technologies for Agriculture; Seattle, WA; August 14-17, 2016.
  11. He, L., H. Fu, M. Karkee, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Effect of Fruit Location on Apple Detachment with Mechanical Shaking. Proceedings of the 5th IFAC Conference on Sensing, Control and Automation Technologies for Agriculture; Seattle, WA; August 14-17, 2016.
  12. Fu, H., L. He, S. Ma, M. Karkee, D. Chen, Q. Zhang, and S. Wang. 2016. Bruise Responses of Apple-to-Apple Impact. Proceedings of the 5th IFAC Conference on Sensing, Control and Automation Technologies for Agriculture; Seattle, WA; August 14-17, 2016.
  13. Chen, L., S. Kaewkorn, L. He, Q. Zhang, and M. Karkee. 2016. Design and Evaluation of a Levelling System for a Weeding Robot. Proceedings of the 5th IFAC Conference on Sensing, Control and Automation Technologies for Agriculture; Seattle, WA; August 14-17, 2016.
  14. Davidson, J.R., Silwal, C.J. Hohimer, M. Karkee, C. Mo, and Q. Zhang. 2016. Proof-of-Concept of a Robotic Apple Harvester.IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Daejon, Korea, October 9 – 14, 2016.
  15. Davidson, J., C. Mo, A. Silwal, M. Karkee, J. Li, K. Xiao, Q. Zhang. 2015. Human-Machine Collaboration for Robotic Harvesting of Fresh Market Apples. ICRA 2015 Workshop on Robotics in Agriculture; 30 May, 2015; Seattle, WA.
  16. Gongal, A., S. Amatya, M. Karkee*, Q. Zhang, and K. Lewis. 2014. Identification of Repetitive Apples for Improved Crop-Load Estimation with Dual-Side Imaging. Proceedings of The 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control; 24-29 August 2014; Cape Town, South Africa.
  1. Monga, M., Karkee, S. Sun, L. K. Tondehal, B. L. Steward, A. Kelkar, J. Zambreno. 2012. Real-time Simulation of Dynamic Vehicle Models using a High-performance Reconfigurable Platform. International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2012, June 4-6, 2012, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
  2. Karkee, M., M. Monga, B. L. Steward, J. Zambreno, A. G. Kelkar. 2010. Real-time Simulation and Visualization Architecture with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Simulator. The of the ASME 2010 World Conference on Innovative Virtual Reality (WINVR2010), May 12-14, 2010, Ames, Iowa, USA.
  3. Aziz, S. A., B. L. Steward, L. Tang, and M. Karkee. 2006. Multiple GPS Measurements for Digital Elevation Model. Proceedings of the 8th Int’l. Conf. on Precision Agriculture, Eds. R. H. Rust and W. E. Larson, Madison WI: ASA- CSSA-SSSA.